During its first year of activity, TANIA identified and shared several challenges (and related needs) addressed to the implementation of innovative solutions for environmental remediation based on advanced materials. Particularly 6 challenges were launched by partners in a Report (TANIA Overview Challenges) in order to start proposing ways out and determining contributions.
In this perspective comes this survey on in-situ technologies remediation methods. This particular review comes under the challenge related to the need for raise awareness on process of nanoremediation (Challenge 6). The project partner Regional Council of Päijät-Häme contracted engineering and consultancy companies Ramboll Finland ltd, Pöyry Finland ltd and Insinööritoimisto Gradientti ltd to carry out a review of in situ remediation methods that have been used in the last five years. The review focuses on actual contaminated sites where in situ methods were used for soil or groundwater remediation. Although the TANIA project is primarily focused on nanoremediation-based methods, the review also considers currently used and emerging in situ techniques.
The data for the study was collected in the form of a questionnaire. The questionnaire was planned to obtain data regarding the remediation methods used in field scale, evaluation of the methods (benefits, challenges and risks) and future prospects. The data is based on 28 individual responses to the survey. The respondents represented mainly (70 %) consultants, but there were also researchers, public authorities, and contractors among respondents. The sites the respondents considered were situated mainly in Europe (79 %) and North America (17 %), and answers regarding single responses from South America and Australia were obtained.

As a conclusion of the survey it can be stated, that the shift from the use of single techniques to site-specific tailored solutions for each site has been a major trend in in situ remediation in the past five years. New and upcoming solutions like direct push injection and electrokinesis with frequently changing field polarity entail technical advancements to old methods. Nanoremediation by nanoscale ZVI is another megatrend which, as soon as insufficient knowledge about its potentially toxic effects to biota is reached, has created a lot of expectations. In general, in situ remediation techniques are seen as increasingly useful. They are often cheaper, the end results are increasingly easier to predict, they are environmentally sound – and in some cases, the only viable option to decontaminate soil and groundwater.

The whole survey is downloadable in the Library section of the project website or directly by clicking here.