The objective of this pratice is decreasing vehicular accessor to the “Area C” (i.e. LTZ) of Milan, displaying a good method of citizen involvement.
Area C has an outstanding attractiveness because of the activities and services settled in, that determine during the central daylight hours an average of 39.000 persons/km2, with a peak of almost 140.000 person/km2 within the historic centre.
Improving the life conditions of those who live, work, study and visit the city is the goal of the Congestion Charge in Area C. Milan experienced two types of road pricing scheme: a pollution charge 2008-2012 and a congestion charge 2012 –present. This second scheme was setup following the results of a bottom-up referendum, approved by 79.1 % of voters, asking a plan of action to enhance public transport and alternative mobility, the extension of the road charge to all vehicles (except those with zero emission) and the progressive widening of the area subjected to the pricing. The congestion charge is based on a system of tickets, to be paid by the vehicles entering the zone.
“Area C” can be considered an innovative project and a best practice for the experiences gained, the participative process and the methodology (bottom-up approach). The project included a very good participative approach through a referendum involving the whole local population. The implementation process started in 2008 by the start-up of a Pollution charge into “Area C” of the city, followed by a referendum that approved the congestion charge into the same area, in which all the main mobility stakeholders were involved.

Resources needed

Strong involvemente of the city council. Professional communicators are needed, to facilitate the participative process.

Evidence of success

The good practice reached excellent results in terms of traffic reduction, safety increase and pollution reduction over the area and in the neighbouring ones. For example: Decrease of road traffic and road accidents (about 26-29% reduction), Increase of public transport users (+12% on surface PT; + 17% on Underground).
Incomes from the congestion fee in 2016 resulted in over 28 M €, all reinvested in project or sustainable mobility.
Data collected are used for traffic analysis.

Potential for learning or transfer

The practice is considered fully transferable to cities and Regions which have a very attractive/touristic city centre. Many cities have already adopted an LTZ, but the case of Milan was outstanding because of the participatory process which could be replicated elsewhere.

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Main institution
AMAT Agenzia Mobilità Ambiente e Territorio
Lombardia, Italy (Italia)
Start Date
January 2012
End Date


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