Brandenburg police to remediate small landfills in a rural area, ruled by the “Guideline for closing measures of landfills with low risk potential”, from 1994.
In Brandenburg exist more than 5,000 landfills (LF) in rural areas whose operational phase ended in 1990 – 1992.The risk potential of these LF is low. Brandenburg created a guideline to handling these LF.
It was established an classification system. All LF were assigned to one of 4 classes A1, A2, B1, B2. If a risk assessment exist the classification could made in deviation of the classification system.
Remediation measures for classes A1, A2:
- Collecting scrap and bulky waste from the LF surface
- Profiling of the LF body so that a minimum gradient of 5% to the edge is created
and surface water can flow away (Eligible non polluted construction waste can be used.
The use of construction waste can help to finance the remediation.)
- recultivation layer 50 cm thick, planting with grass
Additional for class A2:
- slopes should not be steeper than 1 : 3
- groundwater has to be observed
Remediation measures for class B1:
- waste collecting and profiling like for A1, A2
- surface sealing system, consisting of
• a sealing element, e.g. mineralic layer, permeability max. 10-8 m/s, 50 cm thick
• drainage laye, permeability min. 10-3 m/s, 30 cm thick
• recultivation layer, 50 cm thick (see the guideline, better is 1 m),planting with grass
- checking if LF gas occurs, if yes, facilities for degassing are to install (passive
measures are often sufficient)
Remediation measures for class B2:
- in accordance to LF-class II of German landfill directive
In Brandenburg for landfills of class A in average 100,000 € are used for the remediation of 1 ha. Using of construction waste for profiling can it make cheaper. For class B1 300,000 up to 500,000 €/ha are needed, for class B2 up to 1 m € are needed.
Evidence of success
Following the guideline thousends of small landfills in Brandenburg are remediated. The practice is good because it shows a connection between the risk potential and the remediation measures. The financial efforts is in a good relationship with the evidence of the landfill. The method to classify the landfills and to deviate measures for every class can be used in every region of the EU.The existance of a risk assessment can be helpful but is not necessary.
The acceptance of construction waste and excavation soil for profiling of the landfill body can limiting the financial efforts of remediation. The authorities have to observe that only eligible material is used. Only mineralic materials are used and upper limits for pollution have to be given.
Potential for learning or transfer
On the territories of the EU member states exist about 500,000 landfills. Most of them are small and have a low risk potential. There are no guidelines or recommendations for remediating of those landfills.
All member states of the EU are facing the challenge of introducing a modern waste management system. This includes the construction and operation of landfills in accordance with the requirements of the eu landfill directive. These landfills can only be operated economically if small landfills not in line with the state of the art are closed.
When renovating these landfills, it is also important to adapt the used areas to the land-scape again.The described guideline is only an example. Every state or every region of the EU can develop similar guidelines in accordance with her own circumstances.
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