Introduction of policies to tackle low air quality In Katowice.
Emission from household heating is the main source of air pollution on the area of Silesia, Poland. Heating on Silesia is mostly based on coal. Considerable amounts of households use the individual heating installations. Additionally the low energy efficiency of heating installation in households as well as low thermal efficiency of households lead to combustion of large amounts of fuels. The new law called ‘the anti-smog resolution’ was adopted to solve partly this problem. The new law introduces obligatory replacements of ineffective heating boilers with more ecologically friendly solutions. Citizens of Silesia region can choose one of the following heating system: connection to collective heating systems/networks, setup the new boiler based on natural gas or oil or new boiler based on coal but meeting strict requirements concerning energy efficiency and emission to air.
The law has the local range. The resolution is implemented by all municipalities of the Silesian Voivodship, which motivate their residents to replace the old heat source by co-financing.
The main stakeholders are the municipalities of the Silesian region and all citizens of Silesian Voivodship (12 ths km2; 4.5 million people).
Costs depend on: number of old boilers in the voivodship needing replacement; level of co-financing to replace old source e.g. purchase of a class coal boiler, purchase of a gas boiler, connection of the house to the network heating.
Evidence of success
The practice forces residents to replace ineffective installations that negatively impact on air quality. The first effects of the implementation of the resolution should be expected in 2022, when all old installations over 10 years are to be removed. The resolution will improve air quality and reduce the amount of coal combusted. As a results considerable increase of energy efficiency and reduction of carbon dioxide emission are expected.
The financial resources needed are high. The costs will be shared – partial co-financing is anticipated, but partially citizens will have to bear the cost of replacing the heating system. Subsidies for exchange will be a big burden for local budgets of the region, municipalities and cities.
Potential for learning or transfer
Practice will be interesting for other regions that are struggling with emissions from household heating.