Ljubljana's electric-powered vehicles referred to as Kavalirs are a free city centre public transport option friendly both to people and the environment.
In recent years, the City of Ljubljana has renovated and greened its vehicle fleet.

In 2008 it launched Call on demand service named Kavalir. Since 2012, it has been a permanent measure of Public passenger transport company. In the framework of the European Mobility Week 2015, the Kavalir 4, closed and winter-time electric vehicle was introduced. A new electric vehicle provides environmentally friendly transport in the city centre, as it does not produce no noise or exhausts. In 2018, there are 7 such vehicles in the city.

The goal of such measure was the change in travel habits and the increased share of passengers with PT, faster and more comfortable travel to the destination, easier combining different types of traffic.

Kavalir contributes to energy savings and reduced CO2 emissions in the city. With moderate traffic in the city, it increases safety in pedestrian areas, reduces congestion and reduces pressure on car parks. In doing so, the municipality improves the quality of life in the city. This ensures a vivid life and development in the city centre.

The measure Kavalir was also officially approved for the continuous implementation within the SUMP preparation. The shareholders involved in the preparation of the document estimated that the measure was effective and supported it in the further implementation. The users of Kavalir are primarily people with special needs (e.g. disable people. It is also used by elder people, children and tourists.

Resources needed

From 2008 the practise was implemented within EU projects where the funds were provided. Since SUMP revision in 2017 the funds are guaranteed by municipality (Department of Economic Activities and Transport) and are amounted for 200.000 in next 5 years.

Evidence of success

According to the Ljubljana Public transport information, 900.000 people were transported between 2008 and 2015. On the busiest Sunday, they also drive 75 km. The total operating costs are around € 30,000 per month. The costs include 9 drivers, electricity costs (200 €) and vehicle maintenance. Call response of Kavalir is 5-20 minutes or more, depending on demand. The speed of the vehicle is an average of 8 km / h and sometimes rises to 15 km / h, which proves the suitability for pedestrian zones

Difficulties encountered

The first vehicles, however, had some limitations, the newer versions of vehicles are processed so they are more like a small bus than a golf cart and are equipped with the roof and a special wheelchair ramp. Also, the route has been more preciously defined.

Potential for learning or transfer

- The practise can be transfer to the different Action plans of the strategies or policies.
- If the region faces /encounters with the same problems, the practise can be easily transferred.
- It is an electrical vehicle, thus the city can benefit from reducing the noise in the residential areas; make a clean environment.
- The Kavalir vehicle is supporting the disable people.
- The practise is considered to be implemented in the pedestrian zone as the Kavalir does not reach more than 25 km/h, thus it is suitable for such areas.

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Main institution
Municipality of Ljubljana
Vzhodna Slovenija, Slovenia (Slovenija)
Start Date
January 2008
End Date


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Good Practices being followed by

Ana Isabel Cardoso

ADENE - Portuguese Energy Agency