Culture is used as a development strategy in many European cities, especially those where deindustrialisation hit harder. Culture can also become a means to attract capital, to improve the image of the city, and to promote unity and cooperation. Without necessarily building flagship cultural venues, cities are betting on culture and use it to re-brand themselves.

Speakers from Liverpool (a former ECoC, 2008) and Nantes will examine some of the consequences of culture-led urban regeneration in their cities.